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2016, 6 x 9", 332 pages; 142 b/w figures, references and index.
North American Bison
Their Classification and Evolution
by Jerry N. McDonald. (Click for author info)
Release Date: June 15, 2016
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Bison have been present on the North American continent for at least 3 million years, migrating from Asia late in the Pliocene. During that period they spread throughout much of North America and, with the onset of glacial activity during the Pleistocene, diversified morphologically and socially as the contenent's enviornmental dynamics created different and changing selection regimes and evolutionary opportunities.
The arrival of humans on the continent during the most recent period of glacial activity, probably around some 20-30,000 years ago, put into motion those evolutionary dynamics that resulted, first, in the appearance of the small and increasingly numerous bison that are known historically and, then, on at least two occasions nearly brought that form of life to extinction.